Instructor : Stephen A. Kish
Summer 1998

Note:  These questions represent the style of questions that will be
asked on exams. Do not "memorize" answers since a change in the phrasing
of a question may make the answer entirely different.  If you are really
not sure of the correct answer, please see me and I will help you.

Chapters 1 - 9

The most abundant element in the earth's crust (by weight) is: a. calcium b. oxygen c. silicon d. iron e. carbon
The most common group of minerals that exist in the earth's crust are: a. carbonates (example: calcite) b. silicates (example: quartz) c. oxides (example: magnetite) d. halides (example: halite or rock salt) e. sulfides (example: pyrite or fool's gold)
The minerals graphite and diamond are similar in that: a. they are both the same color b. they are both composed of carbon c. they have the same hardness d. they have the same luster e. they have the same type of chemical bonding
Which of the following examples is not a ferromagnesian mineral: a. biotite b. quartz c. pyroxene d. amphibole (example hornblende) e. olivine
Which of the following minerals is not common in the igneous rock granite: a. sodium plagioclase b. quartz c. biotite d. potassium feldspar e. olivine
A good example of a relatively small, concordant igneous intrusion would be: a. lava flow b. volcanic pipe c. batholith d. sill e. dike
Which of the following types of igneous rocks is not a plutonic (intrusive) rock : a. gabbro b. andesite c. diorite d. granite e. peridotite
A fragment of country rock (the rock surrounding an igneous intrusion) preserved within a plutonic rock is know as: a. xenolith b. vesicle c. pegmatite d. stock e. phenocryst
A low viscosity magma will form a lava with a glassy surface and rope-like texture. This type of lava is called: a. pillow lava b. aa c. bomb d. pahoehoe e. none of the above
Shield volcanoes are usually composed of: a. rhyolite b. andesite c. basalt d. pillow lava e. gabbro
A well known example of a volcanic caldera would be: a. Mount St. Helens, Washington b. Paricutin, Mexico c. Crater Lake, Oregon d. Mt. Pelee, Martinique e. Mt. Vesuvius, Italy
Igneous activity that occurs along the mid-oceanic ridge systems is associated with magma produced by: a. wet rocks being subducted (buried) deep in the earth b. dry rocks being subducted deep in the earth c. wet rocks rising from deep in the earth d. dry rocks rising rapidly from deep in the earth e. friction along fault zones
Thermal expansion and contraction of rocks produced by daily changes in temperature is now known to be a major agent of mechanical weathering (true or false): a. true b. false
Which of the following types of rocks is highly susceptible to chemical weathering by the solution activity of rain water? a. quartz sandstone b. limestone c. shale d. rhyolite e. mudstone
Arkose is: a. a shale composed of pure quartz b. a shale composed of quartz and feldspar c. a sandstone composed of pure quartz d. a sandstone composed of quartz and feldspar e. a conglomerate composed of quartz and rock fragments
The most common type of sedimentary rocks is: a. limestone b. sandstone c. conglomerate d. rock salt e. shale
A sedimentary rock composed of pebble size, rounded detrital particles is called a: a. shale b. mudstone c. limestone d. conglomerate e. sandstone
In a graded sedimentary layer (bed) the coarsest grains would be found: a. near the top of the bed b. in the center of the bed c. near the base of the bed Which of the following is not a chemical sedimentary rock? a. rock salt b. mudstone c. limestone d. chert
A type of metamorphism associated with the "baking" effects of an igneous intrusion is called: a. dynamic metamorphism b. regional metamorphism c. shock metamorphism d. burial metamorphism e. contact metamorphism
A hard, non-foliated rock produced by contact metamorphism is called: a. marble b. mica schist c. migmatite d. slate e. hornfels
A rock formed by "in-place", partial melting of metamorphic rock is called: a. marble b. mica schist c. migmatite d. slate e. hornfels
One of the most common types of rocks exposed in the state of Florida is: a. granite b. basalt c. marble d. limestone e. shale
Chapters 10 - 24
The controlling force of mass wasting is: a. water b. gravity c. composition of surface material d. earthquake activity e. none of the above
A low, offshore island of sand paralleling a coast is called: a. tombolo b. sea stack c. baymouth bar d. barrier island e. spit.
Which of the following is a landform created by wave erosion? a. spit b. estuary c. tombolo d. sea arch e. breakwater
How does wind transport sand grains? a. primarily as part of the suspended load b. wind is not capable of moving sand grains c. in equal quantities in the suspended and bed loads d. by saltation in the bed load
Desert pavement is the result of: a. intense chemical weathering b. deflation c. abrasion by windblown sand d. erosion by running water e. erosion by glacial ice
The slipface of a particular barchan dune is facing to the southeast The prevailing wind in this area is probably from the: a. northeast b. northwest c. southeast d. southwest
Glacial valleys have a characteristic_ shape. a. V b. L c. U d. W
The portion of a glacier where melting and evaporation exceed the amount of snowfall is called: a. the zone of accumulation b. the zone of degradation c. the zone of ablation d. the crevasse zone
A type of moraine formed at the end of a "stable" glacier is called: a. terminal moraine b. ground moraine c. recessional moraine d. lateral moraine e. medial moraine
A "cup-like" cliff formed by glacial erosion is called a: a. cirque b. hanging valley c. kettle d. roches mountonnees e. tarn
The removal of large amounts of groundwater from a well will produce: a. a perched water table b. an artesian well c. a cone of depression d. a pumping dimple e. none of the above
River valleys have a characteristic shape. a. V b. L c. U d. W
A stream drainage pattern associated with tilted layers of hard and soft rocks is called: a. trellis b. rectangular c. dendritic d. braided e. radial
An alluvial fan forms when: a. a mountain stream enters a flat, desert valley b. a mountain stream enters a lake c. a mountain stream enters the ocean
Permeable rock strata or sediment that transmit groundwater freely are called: a. perched water tables b. aquicludes c. springs d. aquifers e. none of the above
A good example of a rock that is an aquiclude: a. a sandstone b. a cavernous (karst) limestone c. a highly fractured granite d. a shale
A type of sediment transport that is associated with a "hopping" motion of individual sediment particle is called: a. dissolved load transport b. suspended load transport c. saltation transport d. meander transport
At a bend in a river, erosion dominates: a. on the outside of the bend b. on the inside of the bend c. on both outside and inside the bend d. at an oxbow lake
The point were two meanders merge to form a new river channel is called: a. a wind gap b. a water gap c. a cutoff d. an oxbow lake
A natural levee is: a. an erosional feature b. a depositional feature
Be able to identify geologic structures from their appearance on the earth's surface (map view) and in geologic cross section. (check Chapter 10) These structures include the following: monocline dome basin anticline syncline plunging fold (be able to tell the direction of plunge) normal fault reverse fault thrust fault strike slip fault horst and graben faulting
Within a sequence of inclined (but not overturned) sedimentary rock layers, the dip of the strata will be: a. in the direction of the younger layers b. in the direction of the older layers c. the dip of the layers cannot by used to determine which layer is younger [no answer d or e]
Major faults like the San Andreas fault in California seem to experience two kinds of release of elastic strain: a. primary and secondary b. compressional and shear c. earthquakes and quiet rupture d. creep and violent rupture ("stick-slip" movement) e. plastic flow
Which of the following is example of a region associated with a divergent continental plate boundary a. Hawaii b. San Andreas fault c. East African rift zone d. Iceland e. western edge of South America
The "magnetic striping" observed in region of oceanic crust is a produce of: a. alternating strips of magnetic and nonmagnetic crust b. long submarine ridges and valleys c. hundreds of submarine "island arcs" d. strips of normal and "reversely" magnetized oceanic crust e. alternating layers of basalt and sediment
The "mechanism" that produces shallow earthquakes is: a. volcanic activity b. clastic deformation c. elastic rebound associated with fault movement d. creep associated with fault movement e. none of the above
The deepest earthquakes in the earth originate at depths of: a. 5 km b. 100 km c. 500 km d. 700 km e. 1000 km
The actual location of an earthquake is called the: a. wave front b. epicenter c. tsunami d. focus e. none of these
An earthquake with a magnitude of 6.5 on the Richter scale has earthquake wave amplitudes approximately _______ times greater than an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.5. a. .001 b. .01 c. .1 d. 10 e. 100
Which one of the following statements is true concerning S-type earthquake waves: a. are the same as surface waves b. travel through solids and liquids c. are slower than P waves d. are the only waves recorded on a seismograph e. are produced only in the upper 50 km of the earth
The Mercalli scale rates earthquake intensity by determining: a. the maximum motion recorded on seismic instruments b. the height of tsunami waves c. the amount of damage to building and the "perceived" effects felt by humans d. the distance over which the earthquake was felt. e. none of these.
Some of the most destructive effects of earthquake activity are associated with: a. direct ground vibrations associated with p waves and s waves b. landslides and ground subsidence associated with ground vibrations c. tsunami waves d. answers a and b e. answers b and c
A type of earthquake wave that can only travel near the earth's surface. a. the S wave b. the P wave c. the L wave d. the Q wave e. the F wave
Compare the map and geologic cross section shown below. Rock layers 1-5 are present, layer 1 is the oldest unit. What is the dip direction of these rock layers? a. north b. south c. east d. west e. none of the above [Figure would be given here]
A seismograph station located 1000 miles from a earthquake receives both S and P waves from the earthquake. The time difference between the arrival time of the two types of seismic waves is 3 minuets. At another seismograph station the difference in arrival times between the two types of waves is 9 minuets. The approximate distance of the second seismograph station from the earthquake is: a. 333 miles b. the same distance c. 2000 miles d. 3000 miles e. 9000 miles
The Richter earthquake intensity scale is based upon: a. the area over which the earthquake was felt by humans b. the maximum damage or physical effects created by the earthquake c. the distance from the earthquake necessary to have no seismograph response produced by the earthquake d. the amplitude of the largest seismic wave from the earthquake e. the amplitude of the largest seismic wave from the earthquake plus a correction for the distance between the seismograph station and the earthquake
Which of the following types of oil traps is commonly found in the Gulf Coast states? a. anticlinal trap b. fault trap c. stratigraphic trap d. salt dome trap e. synclinal trap
Which of the following regions has the greatest estimated reserves of crude oil? a. North America b. South America c. Middle East d. Australia e. Europe

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